مطالعۀ تحلیلی انواع صناعات و مشاغل در نگارۀ پادشاهی جمشید در شاهنامۀ بایسنقری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی، رشته‌ی تاریخ تطبیقی و تحلیلی هنر اسلامی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران.

2 استادیار، دکترای تخصصی، گروه هنر، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران.

10.22051/pgr.2021.34803.1098

چکیده

هنر نگارگری هم بازنمای غنای هنر ایرانی است و هم اهمیتی تاریخی در بازجست مسائل فرهنگی و اجتماعی سرزمین ایران دارد. شاهنامۀ بایسنقری از نسخه‌های مهم و زیباست که موضوع پادشاهی جمشید، یکی از 22 نگارۀ این نسخه است. از آنجا که جمشید شاه از نخستین پادشاهانی است که در گسترش فرهنگ و تمدن ایران نقش مهمی داشته است و روایاتی از حکومت و عملکرد او در متن شاهنامۀ فردوسی آمده و صحنه‌هایی از حکومت او در نسخۀ شاهنامۀ بایسنقری نیز به تصویر درآمده است؛ بنابراین لازم است تا شناخت انواع صناعات در نگارۀ پادشاهی جمشید در شاهنامۀ بایسنقری و شناسایی چگونگی بازنمایی این مشاغل به‌عنوان هدف پژوهش بررسی شود. در این‌ راستا سؤالات زیر مطرح می‌شود: 1. چه مشاغل و صناعاتی در نگارۀ پادشاهی جمشید در شاهنامۀ بایسنقری تصویرسازی شده است؛ 2. مشاغل و صناعات مختلف در نگارۀ پادشاهی جمشید در شاهنامۀ بایسنقری با چه ویژگی‌هایی و چگونه به تصویر درآمده‌اند؟ پژوهش پیش‌رو به شیوۀ توصیفی‌تحلیلی انجام شده و داده‌های آن با جست‌وجو در منابع کتابخانه‌ای جمع‌آوری شده است و نتایج نشان می‌دهد که براساس متن شاهنامه ساخت ابزارآلات جنگی، نرم‌کردن آهن، پارچه‌بافی و خیاطی در نگاره بازتاب یافته است.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analytical Study of Professions and Crafts in the Jamshid’s Kingdom Miniature in Baysonqor’s Shahnameh

نویسندگان [English]

  • sahar zekavat 1
  • Abdolreza chareie 2
1 PhD student of Comparative and analytical history of Islamic art, Faculty of Art, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Art, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Persian miniature art represents the enrichment of Iranian art and it also has a historical significance in the cultural and social subjects. The Shahnameh of Baysonghor Mirza is one of the most important and beautiful manuscripts and it belongs to the Timurid period and it is the result of the efforts of Herat school Painters In the art workshop of Baysonghor Mirza. This manuscript was prepared and illustrated in 833 AH by the order of Baysonghor Mirza, son of Shahrokh and grandson of Timur Gurkhani and it has 22 paintings written by Molana Jafar Tabrizi. Also, the painters of Baysonqor’s Shahnameh are Master Amir Khalil and Master Ghiyas al-din (same as Pir Ahmad or Seyyed Ahmad) and Master Khajeh Ali Illuminated it and Master Ghavam al-Din also made its cover. Baysonqor’s Shahnameh is kept in the library of Golestan Palace in Tehran and the number and size of this manuscript pages are 690 pages and 384 by 265 mm and its diameter is 75 mm, respectively. It is necessary to mention that Jamshid's kingdom is one of the 22 miniatures in this Shahnameh of Baysonghor manuscript. Also, Jamshid Shah is one of the first kings to play an important role in the deployment of Iranian culture and civilization and the text of the Shahnameh narrates his Empire and function and scenes of his government have been illustrated in the Baysonqor’s Shahnameh. Therefore, it seems necessary to study the identification of the types of artifacts and Persepolis in the Jamshid’s kingdom miniature in Baysonqor’s Shahnameh and to recognize how Illustration these professions and crafts as a research purpose. In Ferdowsi Shahnameh, Jamshid Shah is introduced as the greatest and most powerful Pishdadi king and son of Tahmorath and a prominent example of an idealistic king in Iranshahr and it is one of the most original myths of India and Iran. Jamshid Shah is the only person in Avesta except for Zoroaster who speaks face to face with ahura Mazda. His era is one of the most brilliant mythological periods in Iran and during the reign of Jamshid Shah, there was no death, disease, cold, or heat in the world for three hundred years. Jamshid Shah has established the great and annual Nowruz among Iranians and many aspects of human civilization have been attributed to Jamshid Shah. He was the first to make weapons such as helmets, armor, and sword. He has also developed techniques and occupations such as textile weaving, house building, shipbuilding, medicine, and the extraction of precious stones from mountains and the sea, as well as the extraction of metals from mines. It should be added that Jamshid tried to increase the level of public health and hygiene. Achieving Gholab, oud, and amber and building roads, and developing cities are other functions of Jamshid Shah. He also established the four social classes and levels. Therefore the present study was done to answer these questions: 1- What professions and crafts have been depicted in the Jamshid’s kingdom miniature in Baysonqor’s Shahnameh? 2-What are the Properties of types of professions and crafts in the Jamshid’s kingdom miniature in Baysonqor’s Shahnameh and how are these crafts portrayed? It should be noted this research is a descriptive-analytical study and its data and information were collected by searching in the library, documentary, and visual resources. Findings show that in the painting of Jamshid kingdom in Baysonqor’s Shahnameh, Jamshid Shah is sitting on a throne and he is wearing gloves and is exchanging the hunting bird and around him, there are craftsmen and artisans, each engaged in a specific industry and activity. The text of Shahnameh shows that Jamshid Shah during his rule has expanded some jobs and aspects of civilization and culture such as making war tools (helmets, armor, and war clothing), softening iron, weaving linen, silk, and Ghez hair, and producing Diba and fur, sewing clothes, promoting agriculture, expanding architecture and building houses, baths, and palaces From stone and gypsum materials, extraction of gems and precious stones, production of fragrant aromas such as ban, camphor, pure mushk, uod and amber, and Gholab, medicine and treatment of diseases, as well as shipbuilding. Comparison of the mentioned cases with the details of the picture shows that the cases of making war tools (helmet, armor, and war coat), softening iron, weaving of linen, silk, and Ghez hair and producing Diba and fur, sewing clothes in the picture Illustrated and promoting agriculture, expansion of architecture and building of houses, baths and palaces from stone and gypsum materials, extraction of gems and precious stones, production of aromas such as ban, camphor, pure mushk, uod and amber, and Gholab, medicine And the treatment of diseases as well as shipbuilding is not seen in the picture of the painting. Also, it should be noted that Jamshid Shah is seen exchanging the hunting bird, which shows the expansion of the bird-hunting training industry during the Timurid period and Ferdowsi has not mentioned this issue in the text of Shahnameh. Also, it can be seen a person in the painting who has a bag such as a letter bag on his waist, and the text of the poems does not mention the development of writing or correspondence. Regarding the details of the illustrated industries and occupations, it should be added that the making of war tools in the text of the poems is used with the phrase-making helmets, armor, and war clothing, which can be seen in craftsmen working with hammers and Special engraving tools in the picture of the painting and a helmet can be seen on the ground next to one of the craftsmen was hammering. Also, there are tools such as metal cutting scissors and a metalworking toolbox. In the case of iron softening, the illustrator depicts these cases by picture a metal smelting furnace, a blower machine to increase the temperature of the furnace, and a person working with the blower machine. In the lower part of the painting, two people have depicted hammering and shaping the metal and so-called softening it and the weaving of the cloth is also shown in the form of a weaving machine and a spinning machine and The sewing job is also seen as a person cutting the cloth and another person sewing the cloth. It should be noted that the industrial arts in the Timurid period, the Timurid princes had grown up in a knowledgeable and artistic environment and after Timur Gurkhani, they cultivated art and encouraged and gathered artists and craftsmen in their territory in Transoxiana, Khorasan, Iraq, and other regions. Baysonghor Mirza Bahadur Khan was the grandson of Timur Gurkhani and the third child of Shahrukh after Elegh Beyg and Ibrahim Sultan and according to historical documents, he was an educated person, artist, art lover, and litterateur. During the reign of Baysonghor Mirza, Developed literature and poetry and the arts such as painting, calligraphy and writing, bookbinding, goldsmith, carpentry, blacksmithing, pottery, textile weaving, gardening, and architectural arts such as inscriptions technique and wooden arts such as inlaying and expansion of the bird-hunting training. A comparison of the details of painting with the occupations and industries of the Timurid period shows that the painter did not mention gardening, bookbinding, calligraphy and writing, goldsmith, carpentry, pottery and architecture, and the art of inlaying, and also, in the details of the painting, Jamshid Shah is Illustrated exchanging a bird-hunting and this shows that the painting emphasizes the skill of Jamshid Shah in Training birds-hunting and hunting with birds of prey and in this painting, the painter Illustrated the job and industry of the bird-hunting training from the common occupations of the Timurid period and painter from the common industries of his time, he only illustrated occupations such as the bird-hunting training, smelting metals, blacksmithing and making the helmet, spinning and weaving cloth, dressmaking.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Jamshid’Keywords: Jamshid’s kingdom
  • miniatures.s kingdom
  • Baysonqor’s Shahnameh
  • professions
  • crafts
  • miniatures
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