مقایسۀ شیوه‌های کاربست سنت‌های تصویری نگارگری در آثار نقاشان زن معاصر در ایران و افغانستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری هنرهای اسلامی، دانشکده هنرهای صناعی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی، تبریز، ایران(نویسنده مسئول).

2 استاد، گروه هنرهای اسلامی، دانشکده هنرهای صناعی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

10.22051/pgr.2020.32007.1069

چکیده

ورود مبانی هنر مدرن، از زمان صفوی و قاجار به ایران و از زمان زمامداری شاه امان‌الله به بعد در افغانستان، تغییرات بنیادینی را در هنر، به‌ویژه نقاشی، به وجود آورد و سنت‌های تصویری نگارگری را به حاشیه راند. از طرف‌دیگر، افزایش حضور زنان به‌عنوان هنرمند، به‌نحوی بی‌سابقه، سبب شکل‌گیری گروه پرشمار، جدید و مؤثر در تاریخ هنر این دو کشور شد. نحوۀ تعاملات زنان نقاش معاصر این دو کشور به‌عنوان قشر تأثیرگذار در حوزۀ هنرهای تجسمی که مانند مردان، از یک‌طرف با سنت تصویری نگارگری و از طرف‌دیگر با واردات مبانی هنرهای تجسمی مدرن و تأثیرات آن مواجه بوده‌اند، مسئلۀ پژوهش حاضر است. حال سؤال این است که آثار بانوان نقاش معاصر ایران و افغانستان، چه شیوه‌هایی را در جهت کاربست سنت‌های تصویری و ترسیمی نگارگری در نقاشی معاصر ارائه کرده‌اند و این شیوه‌ها، چه شباهت‌ها و تفاوت‌هایی با یکدیگر دارند. در این راستا یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر که با روش توصیفی‌تحلیلی و تطبیقی انجام شده، ضمن معرفی زنان نقاش این دو کشور که سنت تصویری و ترسیمی نگارگری را به کار گرفته‌اند، شباهت‌ها و تفاوت‌هایی را نیز در این شیوه‌ها و تکنیک‌ها در آثارشان متمایز می‌کند که شیوه‌های مشترک آنها را می‌توان در قالب تحلیل سطوح، به کارگیری ابژه‌های معاصر، کاربست تلفیقی نقوش گیاهی و جانوری، تبعیت از تحولات نگارگری معاصر، کاربست مبانی هنرهای تجسمی غربی در نگارگری و تغییر و تحول در مصالح و مفاهیم، با تفاوت‌های جزئی یا کلی مشاهده کرد. در ذیل هر کدام از این شیوه‌های مشترک می‌توان ابداعات و نوآوری‌هایی را مشاهده کرد که به‌طوراخص، به کشور ایران یا افغانستان، اختصاص دارد.
 
واژگان کلیدی: نقاشی معاصر ایران، نقاشی معاصر افغانستان، سنت‌های نگارگری، نقاشان زن ایران و افغان.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the Methods of Applying the Visual Traditions of Iranian Painting in the Paintings of Contemporary Women Painters in Iran and Afghanistan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Rafiei Rad 1
  • Mehdi mohammadzadeh 2
1 PhD student in Islamic Arts, Faculty of Industrial Arts, University of Islamic Arts,Tabriz, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Islamic Arts, Faculty of Industrial Arts, University of Islamic Arts, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In contemporary Iranian painting, unlike in the past, women as painters have had a significant and decisive presence and their numerous presence has had a significant qualitative and quantitative impact on the state of the country's art. In the history of Afghan art, before the contemporary era, there is no sign of the presence of women artists. Meanwhile, full of impregnable peaks such as Behzad and the brilliance of the names of men such as Shah Rukh, Abu Saeed, Sultan Hussein Bayqara and princes such as Baysanghar, Ibrahim, Momen, and Muzaffar Hussein as patrons of art and artist, indicate the patriarchal atmosphere in the history of Afghan art. Even the emergence of artists who appeared in the courts after Behzad, such as: "Mohammad Azim Abkam" in the reign of Amir Dost Mohammad Khan or "Mirzamanuddin Khan" and "Mir Yar Beyk Khan" and also the master of "Hesamuddin" during the reign of Amir Abdul Rahman Khan (Shahrani, 1971: 5-25) also emphasizes this.Contrary to the prevalence of Taliban extremist ideology, which has seriously undermined women's rights (Appelrouth, & Edles, 2011: 315), the effects of these patriarchal laws in Afghanistan have continued, even after the overthrow of artistic patriarchy in some areas. (Najafizada & Bourgeault & Labonté, 2019: 24)
It should also be noted that the cities of Herat, Kandahar, and Kabul (which are important artistic centers today) are located on a crescent that has been influenced for many years by the Sufi thoughts of two influential families, Mujaddidi and Gilani (Mottaqi and Rashidi, 2012: 90) and this has been effective in limiting the presence of women in the social, cultural and artistic fields, but sociological research conducted in recent years at Herat University shows that the presence of women in the field of art, including Contemporary painting, is widespread. (Kaveh, 2018: 51) and (Azad, 2017: 72) reasons for the widespread presence of women in the history of contemporary painting in Iran and Afghanistan is another research topic. what is relevant to the present study and emphasizes the need for research is the emergence of a large number of women painters who have a place in the history of art. They do not have a country and now, unlike in the past, they form an effective part in the history of Iranian painting and the history of painting in Afghanistan, and they play an effective role in determining the present and future direction of the art of these countries. Therefore, the way they have reacted to the interaction of the artistic tradition with the import of the basics of art is crucial in the art history of these two countries. In Iran, Qajar painting before the Nasserite era was "unrelated to ancient civilization" and "influenced by the arrival of Western elements and its affiliates". Also, "folk elements" on the one hand and "archeology" on the other hand are its features. However, with the influence of European art in the era of Nasser al-Din Shah, this dependence intensified so much that it led to the "elimination of traditional painting and book decoration" and oil painting with completely Western themes and methods spread on a large scale. (Mousavi Lor and Shirazi , 2019: 91) But the search to find intermediate solutions in contemporary painting, continued in the group of painters who used the old motifs and forms of performance in modern art, so much so that some of these explorations "continue to try to find a lost audience" (Aghdashloo, 2006: 132).
Now the problem is how the contemporary female painters of these two countries interact, as an emerging and influential group, in the field of visual arts, which, along with male painters, on the one hand with visual and visual capital of painting, and on the other hand with the import of modern visual principles and influences. The question is, in the application of the works of contemporary Iranian and Afghan women painters, what methods have been proposed for the use of painting in contemporary painting? And what are the similarities and differences between these methods?
This research has been done by using descriptive-analytical and comparative methods, using the library, internet, and archival resources. In the history of contemporary painting in Iran and Afghanistan, there are a large number of male and female painters (art graduates, etc.) and therefore in the present study, the selection of painters is based on professional characteristics such as age over thirty with a long career in painting. Graduates of art schools inside or outside the two countries who have held at least one domestic or foreign exhibition, selected from prestigious domestic or foreign festivals, or solo exhibitions inside and outside the two countries were restricted.
The painting was affected by a series of economic, political, and cultural developments that took place with the establishment of relations with Western countries and the introduction of modern thought and its tools in Iran from the Safavid period onwards and in Afghanistan during the reign of Amanullah Shah. Problems did not stop and appeared in various forms in some contemporary paintings. Contemporary art of Iran and Afghanistan is witnessing an increase in the presence of women as artists in the field of art, especially painting, which has led to the presence of a new and influential stratum in the art history of these two countries. The entry and influence of modernism in its aesthetic aspect, which spread through various means, including the establishment of universities and art training centers and the use of Western graduates, also influenced artistic methods, themes, and techniques. However, the women contemporary painters of these two countries, considering the structural aspect of the visual painting tradition, reflected some aspects of painting in contemporary paintings, some of which are not seen in the works of contemporary painters. In this regard, the findings of the present article indicate the similarities and differences in these methods and techniques of women contemporary painters of these two countries. Their common methods can be seen in the form of surface analysis, the use of contemporary objects, the use of plant and animal motifs, following the evolution of contemporary painting, the application of the basics of Western visual arts in painting, and changes in materials and concepts, with minor or general differences. In the surface analysis method, the Afghan female painter divides the home page and the visual tradition of breaking the frame into painting. Iranian women painters use the effects of the pictorial tradition of painting with the changes that they make on the surface, especially in the facades of the architectural building.Both groups of painters have used contemporary objects in their traditional painting methods. contemporary painting style, especially the style of Farshchian, can be seen in the works of women painters of both countries. The difference between the use of plant and animal motifs in the paintings of women in these two countries is that the role of mythical animals in Afghanistan and the representation of horses in Iran are recurring patterns. In Afghan women's paintings, plant and animal motifs are usually seen in the representation of traditional objects such as carpets, pottery, etc. that have plant and animal ornaments on their surface. As the female painters of both countries are university graduates, they are well acquainted with the basics of Western visual arts. In the works of some Afghan women, it can be seen that sometimes, the sun, the frame, and the gilding, have been transformed into a visual element such as a line or a surface and have participated in the composition. there are ways to use paint in the contemporary painting of women painters of two countries that are specific to each country and can not be summarized in a common title. These include some of the contemporary paintings of Afghan women who have used the basics of painting to present the genre of painting. Also, by changing the color of the halo around the head, which is an evolution of the fifth decorative principle of painting, to black, they have achieved a new meaning in contemporary painting. In Iran, the letters of the Persian alphabet (which, like painting, evoke the accompaniment of text and image) are seen in the works of contemporary female painters but have no precedent in the works of Afghan women painters. The representation of the horse is also abundant in Afghanistan, in the works of contemporary male painters, but has no precedent in the works of women.
 
Keywords: Contemporary Iranian Painting, Contemporary Afghan Painting, Painting Traditions, Iranian and Afghan Women Painters
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • contemporary Iranian painting
  • Contemporary Afghan Painting
  • Painting Traditions
  • Iranian and Afghan Women Painters
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