عنوان مقاله [English]
Iranians have always been pioneered in the construction of public buildings, including baths during the Islamic era. Purification in the religion of Islam led to the emergence of the bathhouse, a place of purification. Of course, the bathroom was not only for purification but also a place for performing customs and rituals and cultural and social traditions. And it seems that Islam's recommendations to observe purity in the development of bathhouses have played a significant role especially during the flourishing of Islamic civilization. Bathhouses with murals in various fields have remained during the Qajar period which is the continuation of Safavid and Zand art. Mural painting reached its peak during the Safavid period and continued until the Qajar period. It is one of the visual arts which has changed from cave murals to designs on the walls of palaces, baths, coffee houses, and city walls and is a way to communicate with the audience through painting. To connect the wall parts and the whole architecture of the building, mural painting requires a style that conforms to logical principles. So that the painting should be executed in an appropriate place of the architecture of the building that arouses the admiration of the viewers. In general, each period has a common method and special style in creating works of art Which fits into a single principle and common perception of aesthetics. In particular, the works of the Qajar period are one of these outstanding samples. The Qajar and Zand periods can be considered as an important step in the transition from traditional Iranian painting to a new style and the emergence of an Iranian school with a combination of miniature paintings and the achievements of Western art. In terms of visual approaches, Qajar painting is based on depicting human figures and faces with extreme embellishments. Perhaps the root of these tendencies is towards the ancient greatness of Iran, the re-creation of the brilliant Iranian culture and history, and the introduction of power and glory of the Qajar dynasty. The Features of Qajar paintings are such adding some decorative elements to the figures, especially various jewels, and using patterns and motifs, using the Western style, the predominance of warm colors, performing landscapes, trees, and sky in the background. And also, a tendency to structural symmetry and the replacement of most figures in the middle of the painting, the limited use of light-shadow and exponential volume, soft and gentle shadows on faces and unibrows. During the Qajar period, paintings on plaster were used to beautify and decorate the inside and outside of houses, gardens and palaces, the entrance of baths, Zoorkhane and Saghakhane, masques, passages, and gates. Hence, they performed in large dimensions, unlike paintings in the books. Murals on plaster follow the tradition of miniatures and carpet weaving with the same curved arabesque motifs, flowers, and birds, horses, horse riding, hunting the predatory animals, combatting and banquets and most of the themes are taken from the stories of Shahnameh, the romantic poems, and the stories of the Prophets and Imams. accordingly, this painting follows its previous examples in form and content. In this painting, the colors are cheerful, lively and Ghalamgiri is free. Bathhouses have significant space for social and cultural issues in Iranian civilization. It has always been a place to perform many rituals and traditions, comfort, publish news, narrate national and mythological stories and folk tales. the theme of the paintings is taken from the literary and romantic stories and the real-life events of the people of Bazaar, and apparently, the stories are narrated for the common public. These concepts and customs in the form of paintings on the walls in some historical bathhouses still narrate these stories, which are part of the history of the ethnic identity of this land. The Safavid bathhouses such as Ganjalikhan in Kerman and Mahdi Gholi Beyk in Mashhad can be considered and compared due to Qajar murals painted on their walls. The aim of the present paper is the visual and thematic study of the murals in these two bathhouses. The data were gathered through the library and field-based photography. The findings depict that in murals of the two bathhouses, the painter deliberately has been illustrated mythical and imaginative scenes, literary and romantic stories, the real-life events of people, heroes, and also good and evil creatures for a higher and preferred purpose. In Ganjalikhan's bathhouse due to the horror created during the Qajar period, the paintings were more symbolic, although the painter cleverly depicted the heroic ritual among the people and their protest. In Mahdi Gholi Beyk's bathhouse, the subject or issues are illustrated more explicitly in which religious inscriptions, entry into the world of technology and representation of urban neighborhoods, and hesitation in accepting Western dressing have been shown. It can be said that the social situation in the bathhouse of Mashhad has been illustrated with more scenes.
Keywords: Kerman and Mashhad, Ganjali Khan baths and Mehdi Gholibegh, painting, subject matter, and social content.