عنوان مقاله [English]
In 1949, the American mythologist Joseph Campbell tested this approach of Jung, the hero of the narratives of every nation and civilization. He analyzed and came to a similar conclusion to Jung's theory that the myths of each civilization and culture, despite the differences in details, contain many similarities in the structure of narratives. That is, in every archetype, there is a pattern of the "hero's journey" which is a flexible and adaptable example and can contain infinitely diverse forms and chains of stages; In other words, depending on the needs of each story, the journey steps can be omitted, repeated, or moved. Therefore, in all myths, the hero is a symbol of the emergence of self-awareness and his effort to evolve and grow. The main effort and goal of the hero of the story "Victory over ignorance" he studied the mythical structure in various civilizations and cultures, he believed that in the mythical structure for the hero's journey, there are three stages of departure, arrival and return. They can be found in Hasanlu's Golden Cup portrait. A clear example of this can be seen in Hassanlou's Golden Cup photo. The purpose of this article is to study the archetype of the hero's journey in this painting, which is one of the most significant and distinguished works of art in Iran, using the mythological approach of Joseph Campbell. This essay tries to show, using Campbell's theory, how in the painting of Hassanlou's Golden Cup, the artist overcomes himself by using the archetype of the hero's journey, and finally reaches a spiritual and evolved personality. The importance of this issue is that according to the mentioned topics, the ultimate goal of the artist has been to reflect national themes in his works of art and he has used mythical images to depict this national attitude. Now the question is: Does Hassanlu's Golden Cup portrait overlap with Joseph Campbell's "Pattern of the Hero's Journey"? If these archetypes are present, how can they be analyzed based on the archetypal theory of the hero Joseph Campbell?
The method of research in the present study is descriptive-analytic and the authors use the archetypal orthography and considering the theory of "hero journey" of Joseph Campbell, with which the electronic part of the "hero journey" of the artistic narrative of the World Cup illustrations needed to be studied. The method of collecting information is the library method.
Archetypal critique is one of the most important and prominent theories of literary criticism, which can be used as a basis for studies of national attitudes. The archetype of the hero's journey is one of the themes of this critique. The famous mythologist Joseph Campbell, using Freud's theories, especially Carl Jung, and by studying the heroes of every civilization and nation, proposed this archetype. In this archetype, the hero of artistic narratives intends to travel to the spiritual world and begins his journey. On the way, he encounters adversaries and after overcoming them, he leaves the worldly world. A spiritual figure returns to his homeland and communities. In Joseph Campbell's view, the archetype of the hero's journey consists of three stages: departure, separation, arrival, and return, each of which is subdivided. He puts it this way: The mythical hero sets off and heads for The threshold of the path drawn, where it encounters a shadow that guards the transition. The hero may defeat this force or the opposing force will kill him. On the other side of the threshold, the hero travels in a world full of forces, some of which threaten him severely, while others come to his aid with eternal help, enduring great hardship and rewarding him in return. Victory may be in the form of a connection with the Goddess, or the form of acceptance in the presence of the father, or the form of the god himself becoming a hero, or in the form of stealing blessings. The last task is to return. On the eve of the return of the hero, he must overcome the transcendental forces and leave the realm of terror. This pattern itself contains the following sections: The first stage is separation or departure, which is related to the initial parts of the journey. From the hands of the gods 3. Unseen help means relief and help that comes from the unseen to help the one who has set foot on the determined path 4. Crossing the first threshold 5. Whale belly or crossing the realm of night. The second stage of the journey is related to the encounter of the hero with the adversaries, with which the hero reaches spiritual development and growth, and consists of 6 stages: 1. The path of trials or the dangerous face of the gods 2. Childhood 3. Woman as a tempter means understanding the experience of Oedipus' torment 4. Reconciliation with the father 5. Becoming a god 6. The final blessing. The third part, the return, consists of 6 items. Refusing to return or deny the world 2. Eternal escape 3. Reaching help from outside 4. Crossing the threshold of returning or returning to the normal world 5. Lord of two worlds 6. Achieving freedom in life or the nature or function of the ultimate blessing »on the Golden Cup Hasanloo, the hero of the narrative, is called by a great man to the spiritual journey, and after separating from worldly belongings and the everyday world, and with the help of occult aids and battles with animals and creatures, each of which is a symbol for carnal desires and aspirations, The test arrives, the hero of the artistic narrative is invited to fight the devil by the great land after birth and leaving his mother, and he accepts the invitation at the beginning of the threshold with the unseen help of the lord of the species riding in a chariot with animals such as lions and three The snake fights and then in the test phase fights the demon who is a symbol for the devil and destroys him and gains the water of life. At this stage, by overcoming carnal desires, he has reached human evolution and growth, and he is confronted with a naked anime in which God wants to deceive him with his naked body. He overcomes it with the help of relief forces, and after overcoming He attains much immortality on the demon, and after overcoming these difficulties, he achieves the final blessing, which is to save the people of his land from oppression.
Keywords: Hasanlu Golden Cup Gallery, Heroic Journey, Departure, Arrival, Return, Joseph Campbell.