نشانه‌شناسی تصویری سه نگاره از نبرد رستم با سهراب در شاهنامۀ طهماسبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد پژوهش هنر، دانشکدۀ پژوهش‌های عالی هنر و کارآفرینی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان (نویسندۀ مسئول).

2 دانشجوی دکتری پژوهش هنر، دانشکدۀ پژوهش‌های عالی هنر و کارآفرینی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان

10.22051/pgr.2021.33136.1086

چکیده

یکی از روش‌هایی که برای درک و تحلیل متن، به کار برده می‌شود، استفاده از اصول نشانه‌شناسی است. نشانه‌شناسی تصویری توانایی تجسم و شکل‌پذیری را دارد و در مجموعه‌ای از جمله تضاد، تناسب، تعادل، زاویه دید و... می‌توان جایگاه نشانه‌ها را در یک متن تصویری بررسی کرد. از داستان‌های مهم در شاهنامۀ طهماسبی، رزم رستم با سهراب است که در نسخ متعددی مصورسازی شده‌ است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی نشانه‌های دیداری به‌کاربرده‌شده در سه نگاره از رزم رستم با سهراب است. نگارندگان تلاش دارند با روش توصیفی تحلیلی حاصل از مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای، همچنین مفاهیم و روابط ساختاری نهفته را که مدنظر هنرمند بوده، بررسی کنند و به پرسش‌هایی زیر پاسخ دهند:

نگارگران نسخۀ مصور شاهنامۀ طهماسبی برای انتقال معنای درونی متن در تصویر، چه شیوه‌ای از نشانه‌شناسی تصویری را در ترکیب‌بندی نگاره‌ها به کار برده‌اند؟
نگارگران نسخۀ مصور شاهنامۀ طهماسبی چگونه از نظام نشانه‌شناسی دیداری برای انتقال مفاهیم در نگاره بهره گرفته‌اند تا مخاطب مفهوم را از آن نشانه‌های معنادار دریافت کند؟

یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که نگارگر نشانه‌های کلامی را به‌صورت نشانه‌های تصویری به مخاطب منتقل می‌کند و حتی با توجه به نشانه‌های درونی متن، لایه‌های معنادار در متن تصویر، موجبات تکثیر معانی را فراهم کرده است.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Visual Semiotics of three Paintings of Rostam's Battle with Sohrab in Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Rabizadeh 1
  • Nahid Jafari Dehkirdi 2
1 M.A., Art Research, Faculty of Higher ats and entrepreneurship research, Isfahan Art University, Isfahan, Iran. (corresponding author)
2 Ph.D. candidate, Art Research, Faculty of Higher ats and entrepreneurship research, Isfahan Art University, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

 
One of the methods used to understand and analyze a text is the use of semiotic principles. Visual semiotics can visualize and shape, and in a set such as contrast, proportion, balance, angle of view, etc., the position of symbols in a visual text can be examined. In the history of Iran, artistic and literary creations have always led to the formation of many illustrated forms. In this illustrated version, there are always artistic transformations of the poet and painter, which is based on the worldview of visual art. So that despite the beauties in this world, there is an internal link between Persian literature and Iranian art, which has led to the creation of various themes in these artistic fields based on a unique vision and the same mentality. Therefore, the conformity of imaginary forms in Persian poetry and Iranian painting causes the same pure descriptions that speakers give of human elements to nature and objects, this meaning can be found in the illustration of painters' work. Just as the painter visualizes the characters and scenes of the story and the inner themes with the language of calligraphy and color. Such a connection can be seen between the written and visual text in Tahmasepi's Shahnameh. This work is based on Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and according to the worldview of the illustrator, in which he shows the cultural and artistic influences of Iran related to the Safavid era. Throughout human history, the writing of forms and shapes has helped to induce concepts and describe stories and narratives, this has led to a mutual commitment of literature and art and gives a unique crystallization to culture. Several factors that are the main feature of Iranian culture and civilization, caused the illustration of literary manuscripts, especially the Shahnameh, to become a stable tradition, and accordingly, many manuscripts were written and illustrated in previous periods. One of these valuable copies is the Shahnameh called Tahmasepi, which was written in the Safavid era in Tabriz in 928 AH. Written. One of the prominent features in this collection is the use of visual elements that are commonly related in the drawings and has led to the compilation and visual completion of a narrative.
One of the most influential narratives from the great book of Shahnameh is the story of the killing of Rostam and Sohrab. This tragedy has not passed by the painters and they have illustrated several pictures of it; Tahmasepi Shahnameh is one of the illustrated copies that include the artistic-literary masterpiece of Tabriz II School. This story has been illustrated from the beginning to the end by famous painters.
In general, seven illustrations related to this story have been illustrated, which are: 1- Sohrab taking a horse, 2- Sohrab's battle with Gerd Afrid, 3- Kikavous asking Rustam to go to war with Sohrab, 4- The first day of Rustam With Sohrab, 5- throwing Sohrab into Rostam, 6- Sohrab's death, 7- Rostam's lament in Sohrab's death can be mentioned. Among these assemblies, 3 images of the battle of Rostam and Sohrab are studied based on visual semiotics; these drawings will be interpreted and examined based on the original text and visual semiotics. It is worth mentioning that the use of visual cues in the form of visual messages in the visual text plays a decisive role. Because the image has an extraordinary effect on multiple meanings and creates innumerable and different meanings. Therefore, by reading the visual cues from the text of the drawings, the semantic layers of them are revealed and the messages hidden inside the text and the image are analyzed and examined.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the visual cues used in 3 pictures of Rostam's battle with Sohrab; the authors try to use the descriptive-analytical method of library studies as well as the underlying concepts and structural relationships that examine the artist and answer the following questions.
1- What method of visual semiotics have the painters of the illustrated version of Tahmasepi Shahnameh used to convey the inner meaning of the text in the image in the composition of the drawings?
2- How did the painters of the illustrated version of Tahmasepi Shahnameh use the system of visual semiotics to convey concepts in the painting so that the audience receives the concept from those meaningful signs?
By examining the structure of visual symbols in 3 drawings of Tahmasepi Shahnameh, it indicates that the artist has been able to formulate a clear message based on perceptual quality to make the drawings tangible and understandable in the compositions. Even the meaning of the image, which is a sign between the subject and the composition, has led to a coherent process in how the image is configured. Therefore, in this research, by identifying the structural and visual elements in the drawings, that complexity can be revealed beyond simplicity through visual and visual cues. Since there is a clear connection between the subject of the drawing and the visual cues and the combined elements; To convey the meaning through visual cues, the painter uses items such as 1) using the same angle of view with the audience in all 3 drawings and even referring to the inner force of the two main characters in the story, 2) the proportion of elements based on the subject In all 3 drawings, they are illustrated in order to quickly transfer the concepts and the subject. 3) Contradiction of the forces of good and evil that is used to focus and continue the story and these dependent variables attract the audience's attention; And despite the many variables in the main subject, but a balanced balance between the elements and visual signs is presented, 5) the use of far and near space, which indicates the direct presence of the audience on the events of the story and the same in the general story in all 3 The painting is presented and even provides the audience with the use of repetition of free space without showing the architecture on the breadth and variety of the subject, all of which the painters have used in the best way in the composition of their works.
Results of the aspects of visual and visual signs in the concept of the elements of the composition of the three images of the battle of Rostam and Sohrab, which can be presented as follows:
1- The visual signs in the paintings are mostly based on the artist's worldview and are inspired by the original story in the paintings, which can be referred to as the image of Rostam, Sohrab, Kikavous, and other people who had a role in this story; But the painter has only paid attention to the main members of the story and has shown them in the picture, and has established a kind of connection between the signifier and the signified between the two written and visual texts.
2- The elements of the visual signs are used in the form of geometric patterns and arrays such as the art of gilding, which are well executed and combined in the war costumes of the heroes and other people present and the war equipment in the painting. The variety of colors has been used in the paintings, which, like the variety of colors in the painting of the first day of the battle of Rostam and Sohrab, has overcome excitement and movement on the battlefield.
The features of the visual signs of natural elements in the paintings, such as clouds, shrubs, and shrubs by the water, indicate the greenness and continuity of the story, and the water itself, which means freshness and vitality, and in a way eliminates any impurity. Is that in all 3 drawings has a role on the image and in each of them shows a different side of the subject of the drawing. The painting of the third day of the battle between Rostam and Sohrab, the element of water in the composition, covers a small part of the bottom of the painting, which the painter uses as a visual sign for the end of Sohrab's life and is somehow related to death and the end of the story; In this sense, semiotics is a kind of sign created from elements to related conventions whose meanings are attributed to the visual meanings in the drawings.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Semiotics
  • Tahmasepi Shahnameh
  • Painting
  • Visual Semiotics
  • the battle of Rostam and Sohrab
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