عنوان مقاله [English]
The Shahnameh is an epic poem with the largest number of copies and illustrations among Persian literary works. The Davari Shahnameh and Emad ol-Kottab Shahnameh are two works among the latest manuscripts of the Qajar era, produced contemporaneously with the reign of the fourth and fifth rulers of this dynasty, i.e. the Nasseri and Mozaffari eras, respectively. Following their literary texts, the two manuscripts have illustrated the epic stories. This article focused on how the concept of battle is represented in Davari and Emad ol-Kottab Shahnameh manuscripts. To this end, an analytical-comparative study was conducted and six battle scenes were selected from the two manuscripts using the stratified probability sampling method. The research question was: "How and based on which components is it possible to recognize the themes and main characters in the illustrated epic scenes of the Davari and Emad ol-Kottab Shahnameh manuscripts of the Qajar era?" The results showed that despite their considerable stylistic differences in illustration, the two manuscripts have depicted the battle scenes in an almost similar way, so that all of the six sampled paintings have similarly depicted the troops' military cover, oblique angle position, confrontation on the two sides of the frame, and even intertwisting and entanglement. Thus, the two manuscripts' use of similar visual arrangements, defined by their use of similar visual elements in the insider and enemy corps, makes it impossible to distinguish between them. On this account, it becomes difficult to recognize even the main characters of the story, i.e. the corps leaders. Therefore, it can be argued that the display of the theme and content of battles is prioritized over the personalization of the story in these scenes, and the precise recognition of the subject or characters involves not only referring to the painting but also mastering the literary text.